Arctic Earth Observation and Surveillance technologies (Arctic EO)

ArcticEO Field campaign
This campaign is coordinating and collecting data for for the NFR VAUUAV project and CASPER Framsenter flaggskip Polhavet projects in addition to ArcticEO.

Main objectives of the project “Arctic Earth Observation and Surveillance Technologies” are to conduct education, basic and applied research on new technologies for both large scale Earth observation based on satellite observations, and local scale surveillance using UAS. The project will develop competence and technology, which should improve our ability to monitor and assess oceanographic phenomena (including ship traffic and pollution), land use and vegetation, sea ice, glaciers and snow covered areas, the Earth atmosphere, and environmental processes in Northern and Arctic regions. To reach these objectives extensive fieldcampaigns are performed in the Arctic every year to test platforms and instruments and to gather data for development and validation of algorithms and models developed within the project.
Field work planned in support of the different work packages are listed below.

WP1 algorithm validation
• Glacier properties
o Mapping of glacier facies
o Surface elevation map for mass balance research
o Repeated imaging for dynamics estimation
o Summer albedo/reflectance mapping
• Sea-ice properties
o Albedo effects of meltponds
o Ice fraction
o Melt pond fractions
o Ice roughness
o Ice thickness
• SAR test data
WP2 model validation
• Data related to power plant emission modeling
• Hyperspectral measurements for aerosol retrievals
o Profiles downwind of power plant detection of plume (over Kongsfjorden)
• Aethlometer for plume detection

VAUUAV snow albedo and aerosols
The “Norklima” project “Variability of Albedo Using unmanned Aerial Vehicles” headed by John Burkhart of Nilu had campaigns out of Ny-Ålesund in April/May of 2009 and 2011. In this connection measurements of summertime glacier albedo will bring valuable complementary data. This will allow us to compare summer and winter time albedo and BRDF of arctic snow fields. The focus of VAUUAV has been transport of BC (Black Carbon) to the arctic, the sources and effects on albedo through the meelting season. Albedo measurements should then be compared with Modis data.
Data required:
Hyperspectral upwelling radiance and downwelling irradiance data over Holtedahlfonna under summer conditions from CW (Cryowing). Modis data. If possible in situ snow samples and snow characteristics would be interesting.
Data should be collected by flying a square box of lengths 3-4 km with 1000’ vertical steps from 1000’ AGL up to 9000’ AMSL both over Holtedahlfonna and Kongsfjorden. To compare ability of aerosol retrieval over different surfaces.

CASPER Sea-Ice properties (Fram Senter Sea-ice project)
The Fram Center project “Characterization of Arctic sea ice properties from remote sensing observations” was started in 2011. This second season a combined campaign using UAS, in situ and helicopter measurements from RV Lance, UAS from Ny-Ålesund and Radarsat 2 data. The main goals of the project is to develop algoritms to determine sea-ice properties using polarimetric SAR data. Sub goals are to develop and test airborne remote sensing instrumentation from UAS and manned Helicopter to retrieve high resolution accurate sea-ice properties like ice-type, ice fraction, melt-pond fractions, ice albedo, ice roughness and thickness.
Field measurements and data collection
Measurements of sea ice spectral albedo and effects of melt ponds