Incubation behaviour and energetic strategy during reproduction in long-lived birds: Ecological and physiological aspects

The aim of this programme was to study the physiological and behavioural adaptations to the incubation fast in the female eider. This leads to study fundamental questions about three complementary field researches described below.

  1. Evolutionary and ecological approaches: energetic costs of reproduction during incubation
  2. Physiological and ecological approaches: parental investment in reproduction
  3. Physiological approach: regulation of body fuel utilization during fasting